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The media’s portrayal of hacking, hackers, and hacktivism before and after September 11 (07 Jan 2005)
In conclusion, I have found the following trends in the newspaper articles I examined:

The discourse is shifting from hackers as criminals to hackers as cyberterrorists.

There is a larger focus on cyberterrorism now, even if it has not yet happened.

The language of the media blurs the differences between hacktivism and cyberterrorism.

Motivations are not discussed in news articles about hacking, except when the article is about profiling hackers.

Articles on hackers and hacking increasingly use sensationalist tone and language.

One main consequence of media reporting is that online political activism is distorted as a disruptive act by cyber–vandals, hackers, or potential cyberterrorists. It negatively affects public opinion, which results in favorable conditions for passing laws and regulations that limit this alternative way of advocacy and political protest.
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